Circular economy is a newly defined understanding of circular economy. Circular economy serves as the umbrella term for several scientific concepts that want to create cycles in economy, society and nature.
We at circular thinking like to refer to cradle-to-cradle-inspired circular economy, as this is one of the most ambitious concepts with many implementation examples.
>> What is Cradle to Cradle (C2C)?
>> European Commission - Green SME through Circular Economy? (engl)
>> Hansen. Brief introduction to CE
>> Hansen, EG, & Schmitt, J. (2016). Circular economy: leverage potential for product and business model innovation.
>> Drabe, V., & Herstatt, C. (2016, July). Why and how companies implement circular economy concepts - the case of cradle to cradle innovations.
>> Cradle to Cradle Product
Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
>> C2C consulting EPEA
>> Biomimicry 360
>> Strategy paper Luxembourg
>> Public procurement Netherlands
>> Ellen Mac Arthur Foundation - A New Dynamic - Effective Business in a Circular Economy
>> Rau & Oberhuber - Material Matters
>> Welzer - Think for yourself: A guide to resistance
Design Thinking is based on the hypothesis: << You achieve better results if you work with five people from different departments for one day than if one person deals with it alone for five days. >>
The innovation methodology was
Service business models
Service business models are more commonly called product-service systems or hybrid service bundles in science.
They offer some economic advantages:
>> The manufacturer creates long-term customer relationships and accounting advantages for the customer
>> The manufacturer remains the owner of its own raw materials
>> Manufacturer differentiates itself from competitors
From a systemic and ecological point of view, they are very promising for drastically decoupling value creation from resource consumption.