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Circular Economy

Circular economy is a newly defined understanding of circular economy. Circular economy serves as the umbrella term for several scientific concepts that want to create cycles in economy, society and nature.


We at circular thinking like to refer to cradle-to-cradle-inspired circular economy, as this is one of the most ambitious concepts with many implementation examples.

Design thinking

Design Thinking is based on the hypothesis: << You achieve better results if you work with five people from different departments for one day than if one person deals with it alone for five days. >>

The innovation methodology was


Service business models

Service business models are more commonly called product-service systems or hybrid service bundles in science.
They offer some economic advantages:
>> The manufacturer creates long-term customer relationships and accounting advantages for the customer
>> The manufacturer remains the owner of its own raw materials
>> Manufacturer differentiates itself from competitors


From a systemic and ecological point of view, they are very promising for drastically decoupling value creation from resource consumption.

Reading tips:

Reading tips:

Reading tips:


>> What is Cradle to Cradle (C2C)?

>> What is circular economy?

>> European Commission - Green SME through Circular Economy? (engl)


>> Hansen. Brief introduction to CE

>> World Economic Forum - Report

Scientific Article

>> Nancy Bocken

>> Hansen, EG, & Schmitt, J. (2016). Circular economy: leverage potential for product and business model innovation.

>> Drabe, V., & Herstatt, C. (2016, July). Why and how companies implement circular economy concepts - the case of cradle to cradle innovations.

>> Fahnenmüller


>> Ellen MacArthur Foundation  

>> EU Circular Economy Network

>>  Cradle to Cradle Product

      Innovation Institute (C2CPII)

>> C2C consulting EPEA

>> Cradle to Cradle eV

>> Biomimcry Germany

>> Biomimicry 360

>> World Economic Forum

Practical examples

>> EMF - case studies
>> Circulate News

>> C2CPII - catalog of all

     certified cradle to cradle



>> EU action plan

>> EU - Public Procurement for a

     Circular Economy

>> Strategy paper Luxembourg

>> Public procurement Netherlands


>> Braungart & Mc Donough - Simply produce intelligently

>> Ellen Mac Arthur Foundation - A New Dynamic - Effective Business in a Circular Economy

>> Rau & Oberhuber - Material Matters

>> Welzer -  Think for yourself: A guide to resistance





Scientific Article




Practical examples


Apply yourself


>> Tuturials from Stanford

>> Handbook Design Thinking for Educators



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